On this page you have
some basic geology terms.
metal that contains more than one kind of metal atoms.
The changing of mineral composition in a rock.
Banded Iron Formation
(BIF) Iron-rich sedimentary layers that consist of
alterating red iron-rich chert and grey beds of iron oxide.
Metals that are mined, but are not considered precious metals, e. g.
zinc, lead, copper and tin.
huge intrusive igneous rock body which has been formed by the intrusion
of many plutons.
that is attached to the Earth's crust.
The mineral cloud that is formed when hot water sprinkles our of a
upward force that acts on a less dense object which is floating in
denser material (e. g. iceberg in the water).
depression that forms after an eruption of a volcano when the centre
collapses and falls into the magma chamber below.
Mineral material that fills the spaces between grains in a rock.
The process in which chemical reactions are responsible for changes in
mineralisation after the rock comes in contact with air or water.
way a mineral breaks along lines of weakness.
A type of metamorphic foliation with alterating bands of dark and light
minerals, which is found in gneiss.
vertical intrusion that cuts across a rock.
terms: A white dike. ©collecting-rocks-and-minerals.com
The bending of a material, without breaking, when subjected to stress.
removal of the surface material of the ground by wind and water.
fracture where one rock body glides in relation to another.
term to desribe igneous rocks which are rich in silica (light in colour
as opposed to
dark mafic rocks).
Layering that has been formed by alignment of mineral grains
(sedimentary rock) or compositional banding (metamorphic rocks).
Rock that is not altered.
solid material in which atoms are not arranged in an orderly manner (as
opposed to minerals in which they are).
terms: Foliation. ©collecting-rocks-and-minerals.com
Water in the pores of the rock and sediment under the Earth's surface.
The rock above a fault plane.
sudden movement of rock down along a non-vertical slope.
that has been brought to the Earth's surface by a volcanic
Mafic A term
to describe igneous rocks that contain predominantly ferromagnetic
are dark in colour as opposed to felsic igneous rocks).
rock under the surface of the earth.
piece of rock or metal from space that has landed on the Earth (as
opposed to comet,
which is a piece of space material that orbits the sun but has not
landed on the Earth).
naturally occuring, solid and homogenous substance with an orderly
arrangement of atoms and a definable chemical composition.
Geology terms: Minerals. ©collecting-rocks-and-minerals.com
Minerals that contain enough metal that they are worth mining for
mountain building event.
Bedrock that is exposed.
The type of chemical weathering in which oxides are formed.
large, often round-shaped volcanic intrusion.
Metals with high economical value (gold, silver etc)
site where rock is extracted from the ground (as opposed to mine where
metal is extracted).
terms: an old quarry. ©collecting-rocks-and-minerals.com
The inland side of a mountain range that doesn't get rain because
mountains stop the rain clouds from reaching the area.
naturally occuring, coherent solid mass that consists of minerals or
Foliation that is caused by large, flat mica minerals.
loose material on top of the bedrock.
A volcano with a broad dome and non-explosive, mafic lava.
horizontal volcanic intrusion in the rock.
Sediment that has been affected by surface reactions with rainwater and
the addition of organic material.
A volcano with a tall dome and violently explosive, silica-rich felsic
glacial deposit consisting of mud, pebbles and rocks.
top layer of soil, which is commonly dark in colour and rich in
accumulation that is formed by water or other hydrothermal
fluids in cracks of rock.
holes in igneous rock (typically basalt) that are formed by air bubbles
in lava at the time when the lava cools and turns into rock.
measurement of resistance of material to flow. Viscous lava is cool,
silica-rich and contains little volatiles. Non-viscous (low-viscous)
lava is hot, mafic and contains many volatiles.
Geology terms: An
erupting volcano. By Storm Crypt via Flickr.com
Elements or compounds that evaporate easily (e. g. water and carbon
The breaking up of rock by near-surface chemical or physical processes.
inclusion of a foreign rock in an igneous rock.