Here are descriptions
of some of the commonest ones.
These can often be
called by these names to simplify things, but all are actually groups
of mineras - yes, there are even different kinds of quartz.
one of the absolutely most common minerals on the Earth. It
is found in all types
and is very abundant in most sands and hydrothermal veins. It can be
massive or form crystals. It can come in many different colours such as
transparent, white, pink, purple, brown and reddish brown.
Mica is a
group of shiny, layered minerals such as biotite and
muscovite. They very seldom occur in the amounts like on the photo
here. Most often they don't even make 10% of a rock's matrix, but are
still easily visible and often i large crystals. They are very soft
minerals, which easily break along layers.
also a very common mineral. It is the most common
mineral in the Earth's crust, and it is an essential mineral in most igneous
There are two major groups within the group of feldspars -
plagioclase and alkali feldspars, in a solid solution with
end members: K-feldspar, albite and anorthite.
are a group of common, black or dark green mafic,
ferromagnetic minerals with elongate crystals rich is iron and
magnesuim. They are also common minerals and always occur in basalts at
mid-ocean ridges. They include orthopyroxene, pigeonite, hedenbergite,
diopside, jadeite, augite, aegerine, spodumene and omphacite.
Amphibole by Penny Higgins via Flickr.com
are minerals very similar to pyroxenes. Also dark in
colour, rich in iron and magnesium (mafic), and occur in elongate, dark
crystals. They are more common than pyroxenes and typically black or
dark brown. They include hornblende, anthophyllite, tremolite,
cummingtonite, gerdite, glaucophane and riebeckite.